By pieces of dust attracting one another into larger and

Supermassive Black Holes or Their Galaxies

buy canada goose jacket cheap There’s a supermassive black hole at the center of almost every galaxy in the Universe. How did they get there? What’s the relationship between these monster black holes and the galaxies that surround them? buy canada goose jacket cheap

Every time astronomers look farther out in the Universe, they discover new mysteries. These mysteries require all new tools and techniques to understand. These mysteries lead to more mysteries. What I’m saying is that Canada Goose Coats On Sale it’s mystery turtles all the way down.

One of the most fascinating is the discovery of quasars, understanding what they are, and the unveiling of an even deeper mystery, where do they come from?

As always, I’m getting ahead of myself, so first, let’s go back and talk about the discovery Canada Goose Parka of quasars.

canada goose deals Molecular clouds scattered by an intermediate black hole show very wide velocity dispersion in this artist’s impression. This canada goose coats on sale scenario well explains the observational features of a peculiar molecular cloud CO 0.40 0.22. Credit: Keio UniversityBack in the 1950s, astronomers cheap Canada Goose scanned the skies using radio telescopes, and found a class of bizarre objects in the distant Universe. They were very bright, and incredibly far away; hundreds of millions or even billion of light years away. The first ones were discovered in the radio spectrum, but Canada Goose online over time, astronomers found even more blazing in the visible spectrum. canada goose deals

Canada Goose Parka The canada goose uk outlet astronomer Hong Yee Chiu coined the term “quasar”, which stood for quasi stellar object. They Canada Goose sale were like stars, shining from canada goose factory sale a single point source, but they clearly weren’t stars, blazing with more radiation than an entire galaxy. Canada Goose Parka

Over the decades, astronomers puzzled out the nature canada goose coats of quasars, learning canada goose black friday sale that they were actually black holes, actively feeding and blasting out radiation, visible billions of light years away.

canada goose store But they weren’t the stellar mass black holes, which were known to be from the death of giant stars. These were supermassive black holes, with millions or even billions of times the mass of the Sun. canada goose store

canada goose clearance As far back as the 1970s, astronomers considered the possibility that there might be these supermassive black holes at the heart of many other galaxies, even the Milky Way. canada goose clearance

canada goose clearance sale The Whirlpool Galaxy (Spiral Galaxy M51, NGC 5194), a classic spiral galaxy located in the Canes Venatici constellation, and its canada goose clearance companion NGC 5195. Credit: NASA/ESAIn 1974, astronomers discovered a radio source at the center of the Milky Way emitting radiation. It was titled Sagittarius A, with an asterisk that stands for “exciting”, well, in the “excited atoms” perspective. canada goose clearance sale

This would match the emissions of a supermassive black hole that canada goose store wasn’t actively feeding on material. Our own galaxy could have been a quasar in the past, or in the future, but right now, the black hole was mostly silent, apart from this subtle radiation.

canada goose coats on sale Astronomers needed to be certain, so they performed a detailed survey of the very center of the Milky Way in the infrared spectrum, which allowed them to see through the gas and dust that obscures the core in visible light. canada goose coats on sale

Canada Goose Jackets They discovered a group of stars orbiting Sagittarius A star, like comets orbiting the Sun. Only a black hole with millions of times the mass of the Sun could provide the kind of gravitational anchor to whip these stars around in such bizarre orbits. Canada Goose Jackets

Further surveys found a supermassive black hole canada goose uk black friday at the heart of the Andromeda Galaxy, in fact, it appears as if these monsters are at the center of almost every galaxy in the Universe.

But how uk canada goose outlet did they form? Where did they come from? Did the galaxy form first, and cause the black hole to form at the middle, or did the black hole form, and build up uk canada goose a galaxy around them?

canada goose coats Until recently, this was actually still one of the big unsolved mysteries in astronomy. That said, astronomers have buy canada goose jacket cheap done plenty of research, using more and more sensitive observatories, worked out their theories, and now they’re gathering evidence to help get to the bottom of this mystery. canada goose coats

Astronomers have developed two models canada goose uk shop for how the large scale structure of the Universe came together: top down and bottom up.

In the top down model, an entire galactic supercluster formed all at once out of a huge cloud of primordial hydrogen left over from the Big Bang. A supercluster’s worth of stars.

cheap Canada Goose As the cloud buy canada goose jacket came together it, it spun up, kicking out smaller spirals and dwarf galaxies. These could have combined later on to form the more complex structure we see today. The supermassive black holes would have formed as the dense cores of these galaxies as they came together. cheap Canada Goose

Hubble canada goose outlet image of Messier 54, a globular cluster located in the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. Credit: ESA/Hubble NASAIf you want to wrap your mind around this, think of the stellar nursery that formed our Sun and a bunch of other stars. Imagine a single cloud of gas and dust forming multiple stars systems within it. Over time, the stars matured and drifted away from each other.

canadian goose jacket That’s top down. One big event that leads to the structure we see today. canadian goose jacket

In the bottom up model, pockets of gas and dust collected together into larger and larger masses, eventually forming dwarf galaxies, and even the clusters and superclusters we see today. The supermassive black holes at the heart of galaxies were grown from collisions and mergers between black holes over eons.

Canada Goose online In fact, this is actually how astronomers think the planets in the Solar System formed. By pieces of dust attracting one another into larger and larger grains until the planet sized objects formed over millions of years. Canada Goose online

buy canada goose jacket Bottom up, small parts coming together. buy canada goose jacket

Shortly after the Big Bang, the entire Universe was incredibly dense. But it wasn’t the same density everywhere. Tiny quantum fluctuations in density at the beginning evolved over billions of years of expansion into the galactic superclusters we see today.

Colliding galaxies can force the supermassive black holes in their cores together (NCSA)

I want to stop and let this sink into your brain for a Canada Goose Jackets second. There were microscopic variations in density in the early Universe. And these variations became the structures hundreds of millions of light years across we see today.

Canada Goose sale Imagine the two forces at play as the expansion of the Universe happened. On the one hand, you’ve got the mutual gravity of the particles pulling one another together. And on the other hand, you’ve got the expansion of the Universe separating the particles from one another. The Canada Goose Outlet size of the galaxies, clusters and superclusters were decided by the balance point of those opposing forces. Canada Goose sale

canada goose black friday sale If small pieces came together, then you’d get that bottom up formation. If large pieces came together, you’d get that top down formation canada goose black friday sale.

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